The greatest of these is love bitgood road
This occurred during Roberta's leadership of the choir. Some changes became necessary and they were made. For a short period, Roberta became our accompanist at choir rehearsals and Madelyn Shafer took on the responsibilities of choir director. This arrangement was, I believe, rather painful for Roberta.
It was decided after a discussion with Roberta and her daughter, Grace, that she would be our organist only, and she performed gracefully in this capacity for another two years. Subsequently it was discovered that Roberta was suffering from the effects of macular degeneration, and so it was in April of that she decided to retire for the third time in her life.
In October of , we were blessed to hear Roberta, John Anthony, and Mike Noonan in an organ recital at Crossroads, followed by a reception. Needless to say, she was never "stumped. There is no one who can replace Roberta—her talent, her unique personality, and her many interesting tales of years past as she cut her niche in what had been pretty much a male profession.
We miss her greatly. During her tenure at Crossroads, I was privileged to have Roberta become one of my very dearest friends. We spent many Thursday evenings at BeeBee's Dairy having supper before choir rehearsal. And Roberta, always the swimmer, was a frequent visitor to our home and pool on Great Neck Road. It was always a pleasure to include her, and her family, in our various family celebrations. She has given me a deeper awareness of the joy of classical music—which I will always associate with her.
After Dan retired from his college teaching post in Michigan, they went to the Phillippines in and taught for four years at Silliman University.
They go back periodically, but spend most of their time in Michigan in order to be with their twenty-six grandchildren. We have two fond memories of Roberta that stand out.
In her farewell recital at the Congregational Church in Battle Creek, she played some American music from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Before the last piece in the group, she apologized for the music in her own amusing way, saying that her friends laugh about this corny music with so many diminished seventh chords. As usual, Roberta was ahead of her time, because now this music is back in fashion and played a lot. That whole toccata is based on a diminished seventh chord! It was all I could do to keep from laughing aloud over that circumstance, and the placing of the works on the program one after the other.
Roberta returned a couple of years later to give a program at St. It was one of the best talks we have ever heard about the Guild and the problems it was facing at the time with several competing factions such as purists and those using electronic instruments—altogether a most delightful speech and evening.
Of course, she could have just pulled out pieces of paper and made up statistics for all we know, but it was a real tour de force. No wonder she guided the Guild so well! Judy Culler taught orchestra, general music, and mathematics in the South Redford, Highland Park, Troy, and Livonia school districts, as well as violin, viola, cello, string bass, and piano privately. She is a deacon and member of the hand-bell and adult choirs at St. I was looking for a church home and read in the newspaper that Roberta Bitgood was going to be starting as music director and organist at the Redford Presbyterian Church that next Sunday.
I attended the church service and afterward went down to the choir room to meet Roberta. I told her that I was a new music teacher in the area and would like to sing in her choir and that I was a violinist and would like to play for church services.
Little did I know at the time that this would begin a very special lifelong friendship for me! I sang in the choir every Sunday while Roberta lived in Redford, and I played the violin often with the choir and as a soloist for church services. We played viola together on the second stand of the viola section from to I remember Roberta being particularly impressed when two young men who were the sons of one of the French horn players in the orchestra gave an outstanding performance of the Mozart Sinfonia Concertante for violin and viola at one of our concerts.
After dating my husband-to-be, Dave Culler, from June until June , we were married in Sylvania, Ohio, which was my hometown and the place where Dave was teaching elementary school. Roberta came to Sylvania to play for our wedding, and this pleased both of us very much. Roberta always used to say that I knew the choir needed tenors, so I married one! When Roberta accepted a new calling at the First Presbyterian Church in Bay City, we kept in very close contact with her, often stopping in Bay City on our way to our summer jobs at Interlochen, to sing and play in her church there.
After most of these meetings, Roberta would spend the night with us and return to Bay City the following day. She had a key to our house, as she often arrived late and we had sometimes gone to bed. When Dave went into the spare bedroom to get his clothes to get dressed for school, there was Roberta asleep in the bed! Many of the nights when Roberta came, we were still awake, however, and we had long visits as I graded math papers and Roberta worked on her ever-present needlepoint.
Having a late night snack was always a treat, especially when we had fried chicken, which Roberta loved. When Roberta was called to her third Michigan church in , the First Congregational Church in Battle Creek, we attended her organ concerts and again sang in her choir whenever we visited. Roberta kept up her viola playing all through the years, and one of her very special highlights was traveling to Europe with the Battle Creek Symphony Orchestra.
I remember her saying that she never thought it would be her viola playing that would give her the chance to go to Europe. She loved every minute of this experience. In , our second son, Kurt, was born so we had another Bitgood fan added to our family. Roberta continued to stay with us when she came to the Detroit area, and there were many nights when she and I would play violin and viola duets just for fun until two in the morning. I would give up before she did, and I was thirty years younger!
After Roberta and Bert moved back to Connecticut, we saw them just about every year. During our family vacation in , the four of us stayed for several days in the cabin down by the cove. In addition, I usually played one or two violin solos during the church service. In , when Bert died I was able to be there that week, and I played for his memorial service. Roberta played the organ for the entire service.
How many people do we know who could have done that? Our visiting never seems to end, and our late night duet playing only stopped a couple of years ago. I have been privileged to see all the sights of the New London area and most of Connecticut, and I was included in a wonderful four-day vacation at Tanglewood with Roberta, Grace, and Stuart in Roberta will always be one of our very closest friends, and we are proud to be among her hundreds of admirers.
She is one exceptional lady! Bill Kaltrider is the organist and choir director at St. Mary's Catholic Church in Alpena, Michigan. He also plays funerals at St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, as well as playing, on occasion, at the cathedral in Gaylord.
This was in the early s! Swimming and roller-skating were the extent of the physical activities at Waldenwoods. I couldn't swim and Roberta couldn't skate, so I learned to swim from Roberta and she roller-skated—hanging on to me for dear life. My next contact with Roberta was when she was in Riverside. I was fresh out of the U. Navy, not knowing what I wanted to do with my life. I took a lesson from Roberta as often as I could get something prepared. My church had a Wurlitzer reed-electronic.
The action was sooo slow. Henry Houseley was a Founder of the American Guild of Organists, the Guild seeks to set and maintain high musical standards and to promote understanding and appreciation of all aspects of organ and choral music.
Membership is not limited to professional organists, but is open to anybody with an interest in the organ and organ music, there are approximately 25, AGO members in all categories, of whom 18, are voting members as of In recent years, the AGO has added international chapters in Bermuda, Australia, Korea, the European chapter is the oldest international chapter, with many members in France and Germany, as well as some in other countries.
All actions of the Executive Committee are subject to ratification by the National Council at its next meeting, the Executive Committee consists of the four National Officers, the three National Councillors with portfolio and the Convener of the Regional Councillors. The Chaplain is a national officer and not a member of the National Council.
The Regional Councillors are elected by the members of the Guild assigned to Chapters within each of the seven regions, a Regional Councillor is responsible for supervision and coordination of the work of the Guild in their Region and representation of the Region on the National Council.
A Regional Councillor is elected by the members of the Guild assigned to Chapters within each of the nine regions, the Regional Councillor is responsible for supervision and coordination of the work of the Guild in their Region and representation of the Region on the National Council.
Appointed District Conveners are responsible for the development of the Guilds interests in state or area located within the Region. The District Convener assists the Regional Councillor in the work of the Region, Michael Bedford is currently president, elected in to a two-year term succeeding John C.
Past presidents elected in the 21st century, and their terms in office, are Eileen Guenther, the organization holds national conventions in even-numbered years and regional conventions in odd-numbered years. The national convention held in Washington, D. The national convention, attended by more than 1, members, featured several notable venues in the Boston area, the AGO sponsors a number of education programs, including Pipe Organ Encounters, which are intended to introduce youth to the organ and its workings.
New London, Connecticut — New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States. It is located at the mouth of the Thames River in New London County, for several decades beginning in the early 19th century, New London was one of the worlds three busiest whaling ports, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the present architecture.
New London subsequently became home to shipping and manufacturing industries. New London is now known in Connecticut for its wealth of art. New London had a population of 27, at the census, the Norwich-New London metropolitan area includes twenty-one towns and , people.
Inhabitants informally referred to it as Nameaug or as Pequot after the tribe, in the s, the colonists wanted to give the town the official name of London after London, England, but the Connecticut General Assembly wanted to name it Faire Harbour.
The citizens protested, declaring that they would prefer it to be called Nameaug if it couldnt be officially named London, the legislature relented, and the town was officially named New London on March 10, It was well known to Arnold, who sold its secrets to the British fleet so that they could avoid its artillery fire, after overrunning New Londons Fort Trumbull, Ft.
All told, more than 52 British soldiers and 83 militia were killed, New London suffered over 6 militia killed and 24 wounded, while Arnold and the British and Hessian raiding party suffered an equal amount. Connecticuts independent legislature made New London one of the first two cities brought from de facto to formalized incorporations in its January session of , along with New Haven, during the War of , torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors.
Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any boat in this cruel and unheard-of warfare. For several decades beginning in the early 19th century, New London was one of the three busiest whaling ports in the world, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts.
Connecticut — Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Its capital city is Hartford, and its most populous city is Bridgeport, the state is named for the Connecticut River, a major U. The word Connecticut is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for long tidal river, Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, and the fourth most densely populated of the 50 United States.
It is known as the Constitution State, the Nutmeg State, the Provisions State, and it was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States.
They established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park, initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers. The first major settlements were established in the s by England, the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America.
In , the three colonies were merged under a charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution, the Connecticut River, Thames River, and ports along the Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today.
The state also has a history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford. As of the Census, Connecticut features the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the United States.
Connecticut is slightly larger than the country of Montenegro, there are incorporated towns in Connecticut. The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state, the highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.
At the opposite extreme, many of the towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront. Williams the II, a well-known whaling merchant. It was located at Broad Street in New London, Connecticut and it is now known as the Williams School and offers classes from 6th grade to 12th grade.
Harriet Peck Williams born on March 17,, and was married to General William Williams and they had three male children, all of whom died early in life. After the death of her son in , she became a philanthropist for the promotion and advancement of female education. And upon her death, her will allocated a portion of her fortune for the beginning of a high school for girls in New London in memory of her son.
When her husband died in she became the last survivor of her family and continued being a philanthropist, the first building was located on Broad Street, and the architects of this building were Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge. The plot of land on Broad Street was the highest of the land, the school opened being able to accommodate three hundred students, they offered seven classrooms, a gymnasium, laboratories and a library.
Colin Sherman Buell was the first president of The Williams Memorial Institute and he was a key figure in improving higher education for women. Buell tried to expand the Memorial Institute to expand and become a Womens college, when Wesleyan decided to stop admitting women to the university, Buell combined efforts with Elizabeth Wright. The College and the School will be separate entities that will benefit each other.
The college has no power over educational curriculum and extracurricular activities of the school, the Enrichment courses range from Art, Music, Drama, Dance, Health and Wellness and Research Skills. The High School offers a New Advanced Course curriculum that promotes the deepening of advanced placement courses, the school also allows seniors to take courses at Connecticut College so they can experience college life and receive college credits.
It is a residential, four-year undergraduate institution, with nearly all of its approximately 1, students living on campus. Students choose courses from 41 majors, including an interdisciplinary, self-designed major, forbes ranked Connecticut College 81st in its overall list, 45th in the Northeast, 68th among private colleges, and 39th among liberal arts schools.
The college competes athletically in the New England Small College Athletic Conference, the college was chartered in in response to Wesleyan Universitys decision to stop admitting women.
Wright and other Wesleyan alumnae convinced others to found this new college, to that end, the institution was founded as the Connecticut College for Women. Financial assistance from the city of New London, its residents, the land upon which the college sits was a dairy farm owned by Charles P. He died in and his wife Harriet Alexander died in , according to an October 12, article in the Hartford Daily Times, marking the Colleges 20th anniversary, On September 27, the college opened its doors to students.
The entering class was made up of 99 freshmen students, candidates for degrees, and 52 special students, a fine faculty of 23 members had been engaged and a library of 6, volumes had been gathered together. It was a start for this new undertaking. The College became co-educational in , President Charles E. Shain cited in his announcement speech that recent evidence showed that women were becoming uninterested in attending womens colleges.
Admission to the college is considered selective by U. In the college rankings of U. Starting with the class of , students at Connecticut College will be encouraged to follow a new general education curriculum called Connections. Connecticut College has a history of research work and students are encouraged to make conference presentations. Graduating seniors are awarded prestigious fellowships and grants such as the U.
The student-faculty ratio is about 9 to 1, the main campus has three residential areas. With an estimated population of 8,, distributed over an area of about Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world.
Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs — Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island — were consolidated into a single city in The city and its surroundings came under English control in and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from until It has been the countrys largest city since , the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy.
In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world.
Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Over colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1, feet in depth.
The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island.
Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. Additionally, Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, researchers, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over recipients of the award as of In an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college.
Classes were initially held in July and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students.
Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in , Dr. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American.
After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention.
The colleges enrollment, structure, and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In , the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university.
It is the oldest independent seminary in the United States and has long known as a bastion of progressive Christian scholarship. It was founded in by members of the Presbyterian Church in the U. In , Union rescinded the right of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church to veto faculty appointments, in the 20th century, Union became a center of liberal Christianity.
It served as the birthplace of the Black theology, Womanist Theology, Union houses the Columbia University Burke Library, one of the largest theological libraries in the Western Hemisphere.
Union is affiliated with neighboring Columbia University and the seminary serves as Columbias constituent faculty of theology, although administratively independent, Union is represented in Columbias governance structure and appoints one faculty member and one student to the Columbia University Senate.
The brick and limestone English Gothic revival architecture, by Francis R. Allen and Collins, completed in , includes the tower, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 23, Some sections of the campus are now on long-term lease to Columbia University, Unions urban campus is regarded by some to be among the most beautiful in the United States.
The inner quadrangle and other halls and rooms are often used as a filming location by the motion picture industry. The Burke Library offers a number of world-renowned archival collections, including the Archives of Women in Theological Scholarship, in Unions Burke Library became fully integrated into the Columbia University Library system, which holds over 10 million volumes.
The library is named in honor of Walter Burke, a benefactor to the library who served as Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Seminary from to Union Theological Seminary was founded in , during the lateth Century, it became one of the leading centers of liberal Christianity in the United States.
In , Charles A. Briggs, who was being installed as the chair of Biblical Studies, in the Auburn Theological Seminary moved to its campus. In , members of the Union Theological Seminary Alumni Club founded Union Settlement Association, known as East Harlem, it was a neighborhood filled with new tenements but devoid of any civic services.
Starting in the century, the English and Dutch neighborhoods gradually integrated. Numerous residents served in the Revolutionary War, the Green was set aside to commemorate the use of that space for drilling of militia. The two churches became integral institutions of southern and northern Bloomfield, respectively, Bloomfield was incorporated as a township from portions of Newark Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 23, At the time, the Presbyterian parishs namesake was governor of New Jersey and had recently been appointed brigadier general for service in the looming War of , at the time it was incorporated, the township covered The Stone House Plains neighborhood was renamed as Brookdale in , in the townships first century, Brookdale farms thrived while southern Bloomfield industrialized, and the townships infrastructure, civil framework and social institutions developed.
Several miles of the Morris Canal passed through Bloomfield, the Oakes woollen mill thrived as a major supplier to the Union army. Bloomfield was incorporated as a town on February 26,, in the 20th century, GE, Westinghouse and Schering built major facilities, and among others, the Charms Candy Company was started and grew. After World War I, Brookdales farms were developed into residential neighborhoods, substantial population growth continued into the s. During World War II, while many Bloomfield men served in the forces, Bloomfields farms and factories, largely staffed by women.
In the decades after the war, the industrial base steadily shut down with stricter environmental regulations, rising labor costs. These influences, as well as construction of the Garden State Parkway, further drove urban decay and related population turnover, in the early 21st century, redevelopment of blighted and underutilized properties has further shifted Bloomfield towards being a primarily residential municipality.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had an area of 5. Silver Lake is a community and census-designated place defined by the United States Census Bureau as of the Census that is split between Belleville and Bloomfield. Brookdale is a CDP located entirely within Bloomfield, other unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the township include Halycon and Watsessing. Bloomfield is located in the New York metropolitan area, in comparison to the other municipalities in the U.
As of , Buffalo is New York states 2nd-most populous city after New York City, the metropolitan area has a population of 1. After an economic downturn in the half of the 20th century, Buffalos economy has transitioned to sectors that include financial services, technology, biomedical engineering.
The city of Buffalo received its name from a creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to Buffalo Creek in his journal of , there are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. In , as principal agent opening the area for the Holland Land Company, Joseph Ellicott, designed a radial street and grid system that branches out from downtown like bicycle spokes similar to the street system he used in the nations capital.
Although Ellicott named the settlement New Amsterdam, the name did not catch on, during the War of , on December 30,, Buffalo was burned by British forces. The George Coit House and Samuel Schenck House are currently the oldest houses within the limits of the City of Buffalo, on October 26,, the Erie Canal was completed with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,, the Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in In , construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement, Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom.
During the s, Buffalos port continued to develop, both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93, passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo.
Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor, in , the worlds first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. Darts Elevator enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, by , the citys population was 81, At the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River, the city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting.
It was also part of the revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow. The Great Depression of —39 saw severe unemployment, especially working class men. Riverside is the county seat of the county and named for its location beside the Santa Ana River. Riverside is the 59th most populous city in the United States, as of the Census, Riverside had a population of , Riverside was founded in the early s and it is the birthplace of the California citrus industry and home of the Mission Inn, the largest Mission Revival Style building in the United States.
It is also home to the Riverside National Cemetery, the University of California, Riverside, is located in the northeastern part of the city. The university also hosts the Riverside Sports Complex, in the late s and early s, the area was inhabited by Cahuilla and the Serrano people.
Californios such as Bernardo Yorba and Juan Bandini established ranches during the first half of the 19th century, in the s, Louis Prevost launched the California Silk Center Association, a short-lived experiment in sericulture.
In the wake of its failure, John W. North purchased some of its land, in March , North distributed posters announcing the formation of a colony in California.
North, a staunch temperance-minded abolitionist from New York State, had formerly founded Northfield, a few years later, some navel orange trees were planted and found to be such a success that full-scale planting began.
Riverside was temperance minded, and Republican, there were four saloons in Riverside when it was founded. The license fees were raised until the saloons moved out of Riverside, investors from England and Canada transplanted traditions and activities adopted by prosperous citizens. As a result, the first golf course and polo field in Southern California were built in Riverside. C, the trees came from Bahia, Brazil. The Bahia orange did not thrive in Florida, but its success in Southern California was phenomenal, the three trees were planted on the Tibbetts property.
One of the trees died after it was trampled by a cow during the first year it was planted, after the trampling, the two remaining trees were transplanted to property belonging to Sam McCoy to receive better care than L.
That tree still stands to this day inside a protective fence abutting what is now a major intersection, the trees thrived in the Southern California climate and the navel orange industry grew rapidly. Many growers purchased bud wood and then grafted the cuttings to root stock, by , there were more than half a million citrus trees in California, almost half of which were in Riverside.
The development of refrigerated cars and innovative irrigation systems established Riverside as the richest city in the United States by As of the census, the city had a population of 52, The Potawatomi and the Ottawa formed a joint village in the area of Battle Creek. Two members of the party who had remained at the camp were attacked by two Indians. The Indians were reported as trying to steal provisions from the survey team and they were likely hungry because annuities and supplies were late or insufficient, the Potawatomi had ceded their land to the United States by an treaty and been restricted to a reservation.
The Army was notorious for failing to deliver supplies and annuities on a timely basis, during the fight, the surveyors shot and severely wounded one Indian, subduing the other.
Fearing more hostilities, the survey party promptly packed up and left the area and they did not return until June , after Governor Lewis Cass had settled the issues with the Indians. European-American settlers later called the nearby stream Battle Creek River, Native Americans had called the river Waupakisco, to which some attribute a folk etymology.
By this account, the name Waupakisco or Waupokisco was a reference to a battle fought between Native American tribes before the arrival of white settlers. Vogel establishes that this term had nothing to do with blood or battle. Following removal of the Potawatomi to a reservation, the first permanent European-American settlements in Battle Creek Township began to be made about , migration had increased to Michigan from New York and New England following the completion of the Erie Canal in New York in Most settlers chose to locate on the Goguac prairie, which was fertile, a post office was opened in Battle Creek in under Postmaster Pollodore Hudson.
The first school was taught in a log house about or Asa Langley built the first sawmill in , a brick manufacturing plant, called the oldest enterprise in the township, was established in by Simon Carr, and operated until The township was established by act of the legislature in , in the antebellum era, the city was a major stop on the Underground Railroad, used by fugitive slaves to escape to freedom in Michigan and Canada.
It was the home of noted abolitionist Sojourner Truth after her escape from slavery. Battle Creek figured prominently in the history of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. As of , the population for Norwalk was 88, Norwalk, settled , incorporated Sept. Ancient records describe the boundaries as from Norwalk river to Sauhatuck river, from sea, thus a disputing source, and common tradition, describes Norwalks name deriving from the northern boundary extending from the sea covering one days north walk into the countryside.
An additional source found this analysis to be improbable, given that the name Norwalk was used by natives, additionally a nearby river was known as the Norwake River when the area was first colonized. Roger Ludlows land purchase was from the Indians of Norwalke, the earliest town records list the city name as Norwalke The Connecticut Register, published in , describes that the early Colony Records spelled it Norrwake.