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The manual for an SQL DBMS explains which characters have a special meaning, which allows creating a comprehensive blacklist of characters that need translation. For instance, every occurrence of a single quote ' in a parameter must be replaced by two single quotes '' to form a valid SQL string literal. This function prepends backslashes to the following characters: This function is normally used to make data safe before sending a query to MySQL.
It returns a string with backslashes before characters that need to be quoted in database queries, etc. Creating a transparent layer to secure the input can reduce this error-proneness, if not entirely eliminate it. Integer, float or boolean, string parameters can be checked if their value is valid representation for the given type.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on August 2, Retrieved August 4, SQL injection is an attack in which malicious code is inserted into strings that are later passed to an instance of SQL Server for parsing and execution. Any procedure that constructs SQL statements should be reviewed for injection vulnerabilities because SQLi Server will execute all syntactically valid queries that it receives.
Even parameterized data can be manipulated by a skilled and determined attacker. Archived PDF from the original on September 7, Retailers suffer 2x as many SQL injection attacks as other industries. The researcher once known as Rain Forrest Puppy explains how he discovered the first SQL injection more than 15 years ago". Archived from the original on March 18, Archived from the original on November 23, Archived from the original on May 19, Retrieved June 3, Archived from the original on October 9, Retrieved August 13, The blog of a Cambridge University security team hacked".
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Archived from the original PDF on July 18, Archived from the original on March 31, CLU is the software he uses for this. By , hacking in the sense of breaking computer security had already been in use as computer jargon,  but there was no public awareness about such activities. Hackers at play", with Patrick's photograph on the cover.
Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking. House of Representatives on September 26, , about the dangers of computer hacking, and six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year.
Use of the term hacker meaning computer criminal was also advanced by the title "Stalking the Wily Hacker", an article by Clifford Stoll in the May issue of the Communications of the ACM.
Later that year, the release by Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. The popularity of Stoll's book The Cuckoo's Egg , published one year later, further entrenched the term in the public's consciousness. Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with whom they do not agree.
Raymond , author of The New Hacker's Dictionary , advocates that members of the computer underground should be called crackers. Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and even try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as a wider hacker culture, a view that Raymond has harshly rejected. In contrast to Raymond, they usually reserve the term cracker for more malicious activity. According to Ralph D. Clifford, a cracker or cracking is to "gain unauthorized access to a computer in order to commit another crime such as destroying information contained in that system".
A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, either to test their own security system, perform penetration tests or vulnerability assessments for a client - or while working for a security company which makes security software. The term is generally synonymous with ethical hacker , and the EC-Council,  among others, have developed certifications, courseware, classes, and online training covering the diverse arena of ethical hacking.
A "black hat" hacker is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain" Moore, A grey hat hacker lies between a black hat and a white hat hacker.
A grey hat hacker may surf the Internet and hack into a computer system for the sole purpose of notifying the administrator that their system has a security defect, for example.
They may then offer to correct the defect for a fee. Even though grey hat hackers may not necessarily perform hacking for their personal gain, unauthorized access to a system can be considered illegal and unethical.
A social status among hackers, elite is used to describe the most skilled. Newly discovered exploits circulate among these hackers. Elite groups such as Masters of Deception conferred a kind of credibility on their members.
A script kiddie also known as a skid or skiddie is an unskilled hacker who breaks into computer systems by using automated tools written by others usually by other black hat hackers , hence the term script i. A neophyte " newbie ", or "noob" is someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology and hacking.
A blue hat hacker is someone outside computer security consulting firms who is used to bug-test a system prior to its launch, looking for exploits so they can be closed. Microsoft also uses the term BlueHat to represent a series of security briefing events. A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to publicize a social, ideological, religious or political message.
Hacktivism can be divided into two main groups:. Intelligence agencies and cyberwarfare operatives of nation states. Groups of hackers that carry out organized criminal activities for profit. In order to do so, there are several recurring tools of the trade and techniques used by computer criminals and security experts. A security exploit is a prepared application that takes advantage of a known weakness. These are very common in Web site and Web domain hacking.
The computer underground  has produced its own specialized slang, such as speak. Its members often advocate freedom of information, strongly opposing the principles of copyright, as well as the rights of free speech and privacy.
Some consider illegal cracking ethically justified for these goals; a common form is website defacement. The computer underground is frequently compared to the Wild West. The computer underground is supported by regular real-world gatherings called hacker conventions or "hacker cons". Hacker groups became popular in the early s, providing access to hacking information and resources and a place to learn from other members. Computer bulletin board systems BBSs , such as the Utopias, provided platforms for information-sharing via dial-up modem.
Hackers could also gain credibility by being affiliated with elite groups. Maximum imprisonment is one year or a fine of the fourth category. The maximum imprisonment or fine for violations of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act depends on the severity of the violation and the offender's history of violations under the Act.
The most notable hacker-oriented print publications are Phrack , Hakin9 and While the information contained in hacker magazines and ezines was often outdated by the time they were published, they enhanced their contributors' reputations by documenting their successes. Hackers often show an interest in fictional cyberpunk and cyberculture literature and movies. The adoption of fictional pseudonyms ,  symbols, values and metaphors from these works is very common. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with Hacker culture. Timeline of computer security hacker history. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of computer criminals. Hacker conference and Hacker group. List of fictional hackers.