Liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping
With strong engineering response capability and reliability based on long years of liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping accomplishments and long service life, the pumps are used in a wide variety of fields such as petrochemical, petroleum refinery, chemicals, electric power, food, semiconductor and air conditioning industries.
Transportation of high-temperature liquid is possible by attaching a jacket to the outer wall of the stator assembly to cool the motor depending on the temperature and property of the pumped liquid. The basic structure is the same as that of the basic type, but the return passage is wider to maintain the return flow of the liquid.
The pump and motor are connected by an adapter. The adapter is constricted in the middle to separate the motor from the pump thermally by reducing the heat transfer to the motor. In the high-temperature type, circulation to cool the motor and lubricate the bearings is performed by the auxiliary impeller installed at the front of the rotor chamber independent from the main pump.
A heat exchanger is provided liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping cool the motor and circulation liquid at the midpoint of the circulation tube. The basic construction is identical to that of the Type HT High Temperature Pump The motor for this pump has a design that prevents the entry of solids into liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping rotor chamber by injecting back flushing clean liquid or cleaning solution that is allowed to be mixed into the pumped liquid from the inlet connection provided at the rear of the motor.
A back flushing line must be used with liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping pump. To reduce the amount of back flush fluid leakage into the process liquid, the slurry handling type with mechanical seal between the pump and motor M Type is available.
The gas seal type G Type is also available, suitable for handling highly corrosive liquids, liquids prone to polymerization and highly-concentrated slurry liquids. The pump basically has the same construction as that of the slurry handling type pump with mechanical seal, and it features a gas chamber between the pump and motor.
The pump is completely separated from the motor by a gas chamber, which ends concern over wear and corrosion of the mechanical seal caused by the pumped liquid and ensures a long service life. This pump has a construction suitable for handling liquid with a high solidifying melting point. This pump is provided with a heating jacket on the outer surface of the pump and the motor to prevent liquid from solidifying during liquid filling and during the pump operation.
Depending on to the solidifying point of the liquid and the liquid temperature, a simple high melting point type C Type and a complete high melting point type B Type may be used. This type of pump has a structure suitable for handling saturated liquefied gas with high vapor pressure such as, ammonia, and propylene. To prevent vaporization and gas accumulation in the motor, the circulation liquid is discharged from the pump chamber impeller outlet and enters the FB housing and the rotor chamber, and then passes through the reverse circulation piping supplied by the customer before returning to the vapor zone in the suction tank, thereby forming a type of bypass piping.
The basic construction is identical to that of the basic type pump and this type has been built to allow self-priming with no flap valve required. Since there is no flap valve, heavily corrosive liquid can also be handled and there is no possibility of poor self-priming due to clogging in the flap valve. With the addition of a balance disc, the shaft thrust force is adjusted automatically and covers a wide range of flow rates.
The pump is of compact construction that facilitates disassembly and assembly and allows for on-site maintenance.
The pumps in this series are compliant to the API standard. The pumps are mainly used for severe conditions in petroleum refinery and petrochemical processes. The inverter control system allows for energy saving and wide flow range operation. These pumps are ideally suited for assembly with electronic sample temperature controllers and installation in narrow spaces such as air-conditioning units.
The pumps in the JIT just-in-time series are available for immediate delivery. These pumps are mainly made of liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping steel and capable of handling a wide variety of pumped liquids. Ready for immediate off-the-shelf delivery liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping case of emergency. Main features Leak-free Adaptable to a wide range of pressures and temperatures Easy to assemble and Compact, space saving design Low vibration and noise Compliant with international and national standards.
Conventional pump The pump is not connected to the motor causing leakage. Canned Motor Pumps The pump and motor are connected and sealed to prevent leakage.
The pumps are of a construction corresponding to the IP protection level. These pumps are ideally suited to assembly with electronic sample temperature controllers liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping installation in narrow spaces such as air-conditioning units. The pump and motor are connected by an adapter plate. For the basic type, liquid from the impeller flows back to the pump chamber through the FB housing, rotor chamber, and shaft to cool the motor and lubricate the bearings.
This type of construction is designed to handle high-temperature liquid. High-temperature liquid handling type without cooling X, Y Type. These types of construction are designed to handle high-temperature liquid without using any cooling water by utilizing special insulation materials. Requiring no cooling water, these pump types negate the need for cooling water piping. This frees operators from dealing with clogging liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping other problems, thereby reducing the costs including maintenance.
The pump is suited to heating liquids and transporting high-melting liquids that easily solidify. S Type The basic construction is identical to that of the Type HT High Temperature Pump The motor for this pump has a design that prevents liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping entry of solids into the rotor chamber by injecting back flushing clean liquid or cleaning solution that is allowed to be mixed into the pumped liquid from the inlet connection provided at liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping rear of the motor.
M Type To reduce liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping amount of back flush fluid leakage into the process liquid, the slurry handling type with mechanical seal between the pump and motor M Type is available. G Type The gas seal type G Type is also available, suitable for handling highly corrosive liquids, liquids prone to polymerization and highly-concentrated slurry liquids.
Air or N2 liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping is used as filler gas in the gas chamber gas seal chamber. Reverse circulation type for easy-to-vaporize liquids R, Q Type.
The pump features a circulation line that does not form liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping closed circuit. Reverse-piping-less pressurization circulation type for easy-to-vaporize liquids HK Type.
This pump is used liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping easy-to-vaporize liquids such as liquefied gas.
The closed loop maintains a high pressure in the motor chamber, which eliminates the need to install reverse circulation piping, thereby reducing the initial cost. If you have any questions, contact us for more information. This pump is used for high-head conditions.
Microirrigation is an important component of citrus production systems in Florida. For citrus trees, microirrigation is more desirable than other irrigation methods for several reasons: Research has also shown the important advantage of microsprinklers for freeze protection of citrus.
Microirrigation combined with fertigation applying of small amounts of soluble fertilizer through irrigation systems directly to the root zone provides precise timing and application of water and fertilizer nutrients in citrus production. Fertilizer can be prescription-applied in small doses and at particular times when those nutrients are needed. This capability helps growers increase fertilizer efficiency, reduce nutrient leaching by excess rainfall or over-irrigation, and should result in reduced fertilizer rates for citrus production.
The two most common nutrients applied to citrus through fertigation are nitrogen and potassium. Florida state law requires that backflow prevention equipment be installed and maintained on irrigation systems that have fertilizer injection capability. The function of the backflow prevention device is to prevent contamination of ground or surface water by the applied chemicals.
Therefore, before injecting fertilizer into any irrigation system, make sure all required backflow prevention devices are in place and working properly http: The time required for water to travel from the injection point to the farthest emitter is generally 20 to 30 minutes for most microirrigation systems. Therefore, a minimum injection time of 30 to 45 minutes is recommended. This time should be sufficient to achieve uniform distribution of nutrients throughout the irrigation distribution system.
After fertigation, continue to run water for at least 30 minutes to completely flush the fertilizer from irrigation system lines and emitters to minimize clogging potential.
Keep in mind that excessive flushing time beyond 30 minutes can leach plant nutrients below the root zone. Before injecting fertilizer solutions, a "jar test" should be conducted to determine compatibility of liquids and for clogging potential of the solution within irrigation system components. A sample of the fertilizer solution should be mixed with irrigation water in a jar at the same dilution rate that is used in the irrigation system liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping determine if any precipitate or milkiness occurs within 1 to liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping hours.
If cloudiness does occur, there is a chance that injection of the chemical will cause line or emitter plugging. Liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and potassium nitrate are dissolved, heat is absorbed from the water and a very cold solution results. Consequently, it may not be possible to dissolve as much liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping as needed to achieve the desired concentration. It is often necessary to let the mixture stand for several hours and warm to a temperature that will allow all the mixture to dissolve.
Urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium thiosulfate are liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping soluble in water. Most dry liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping fertilizers including ammonium phosphate and superphosphates cannot be injected into irrigation water because they have low solubility.
Monoammonium phosphate Liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumpingdiammonium phosphate DAPmonobasic potassium phosphate, phosphoric acid, urea phosphate, liquid ammonium polyphosphate, and long chain linear polyphosphates are water soluble. However, they can still have precipitation problems when injected into water with high calcium concentration.
Phosphoric acid liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping sometimes injected into microirrigation systems.
It not only provides phosphorus, but also lowers the pH of the water, and this can prevent the precipitation problems previously mentioned. This practice will be effective as long as the pH of the liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping water mixture remains low. As the pH rises due to dilution, phosphates precipitate. One approach that is sometimes successful is liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping supplement the phosphoric acid injections with sulfuric or urea sulfuric acid to assure that the irrigation water pH will remain low between a pH of 4 and 5.
Phosphoric acid should only be injected when the combined Ca and Mg concentration of the water is below 50 ppm and the bicarbonate level is less than ppm. Most potassium fertilizers are water soluble, and injection of K through microirrigation systems has been very successful. The problem most often associated with potassium injection is solid precipitants that form in the mixing tank when potassium is mixed with other fertilizers. The potassium sources most often used in microirrigation systems are potassium chloride KCI and potassium nitrate KNO 3.
Potassium phosphates should not be injected into microirrigation systems. Fertilizers containing calcium should be flushed from all tanks, pumps, filters, and tubing prior to injecting any phosphorus, urea-ammonium nitrate, or urea sulfuric fertilizer. Calcium should not be injected with any sulfate form of fertilizer because it combines to create insoluble calcium sulfate, or gypsum.
Several metal micronutrient forms are relatively insoluble and therefore are not used in fertigation. These include the carbonate, oxide, or hydroxide forms of zinc, manganese, copper, and iron. The sulfate form of copper, manganese, and zinc is the most common and usually the least expensive source of micronutrients. These metal sulfates are water soluble, but through fertigation they are not very successful in alleviating a micronutrient deficiency. It is the most widely used nitrogen liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping for Florida citrus.
The liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping of urea and ammonium nitrate contains the highest concentration of nitrogen of all the nitrogen solution products. When urea-ammonium nitrate solutions are combined with calcium nitrate, a thick, milky-white insoluble precipitate forms, presenting a potential plugging problem. This fertilizer is high in nitrate-nitrogen The product can be combined with ammonium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and muriate of potash KCl.
It should not be combined with any products containing phosphates, sulfates, or thiosulfates. NH 4 2 S 2 O 3 is used as both a fertilizer and as an acidulating agent.
When applied to the soil, Thiobacillus bacteria oxidize the free sulfur to sulfuric acid. The acid then dissolves lime in the soil and forms gypsum.
The gypsum helps to maintain a good, well-granulated, aerated, and porous soil structure. Ammonium thiosulfate is ideal for treatment of calcareous high lime soils. It is compatible with neutral or liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping phosphate liquid fertilizers and nitrogen fertilizers.
Ammonium thiosulfate can be applied in liquid mixes or by itself. Application to neutral and acidic soils without free lime may result in a pronounced drop in soil pH over several weeks. The extent of the pH drop in liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping types of soils depends upon the total amount of this fertilizer applied, the cation exchange capacity of the soil, and the buffering capacity of the soil.
Most Florida liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping soils are very weakly buffered. H 3 PO 4 has a density of approximately The acid is a syrupy liquid that requires storage in polyethylene, fiberglass, or stainless liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping No. Phosphoric acid can be used in many formulations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium mixes. Phosphoric acid should never be mixed with any calcium fertilizer. It will form insoluble calcium phosphate, which can plug irrigation lines.
Potassium chloride KCl or muriate of potash is the least expensive source of potassium and is the most popular K fertilizer applied through fertigation. Potassium nitrate is expensive, but the consumer benefits from both the nitrogen and the potassium in the product. It is an excellent choice of potassium fertilizer for areas where irrigation water salinity problems are present.
It is less soluble than potassium chloride, but more soluble than potassium sulfate. K 2 SO 4 can be an alternative to KCl in high salinity areas and provides a source of sulfur.
It is less soluble than potassium chloride and potassium nitrate. K 2 S 2 O 3 KTS is marketed in two grades and is a neutral to basic, chloride-free, clear liquid solution.
This product can be blended with other fertilizers, but KTS blends should not be acidified below pH 6. Potassium thiosulfate provides not only potassium, but the thiosulfate is oxidized by Thiobacillus bacteria to produce sulfuric acid. Liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping acid reacts with calcium carbonate in the liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping, which releases additional calcium for the plant.
Thus, potassium thiosulfate use on calcareous soils not only supplies potassium and sulfur, but aids in increasing the availability of calcium to plants. Urea is sold as dry fertilizer or as a liquid urea solution. Commercial urea contains about 2. It can inhibit plant growth or damage plants. Urea with less than 0. Urea should never be mixed with sulfuric acid in the field. Mixing urea and concentrated sulfuric acid results in a strongly exothermic reaction and explosion may result if the heat is not properly dissipated.
By combining the two materials into one product, many disadvantages of using these materials individually are eliminated. The sulfuric acid decreases the potential ammonia volatilization losses from the liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping surface. Urea sulfuric acid is safer to use than sulfuric acid alone. Urea sulfuric acid is well suited for fertigation.
It can also be used for other purposes such as acidifying irrigation water reducing plugging potential from carbonates and bicarbonatescleaning irrigation lines once they have been plugged, and acidifying the soil.
Solution fertilizer salt-out, crystallization, or precipitation in storage tanks can be a problem during the winter. As a rule of thumb, the more complex the formulation, the greater the tendency for salt-out. The most important factor affecting salt-out temperature of a fertilizer solution is its concentration of N and K; the higher the analysis of a liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping, the higher the crystallization temperature.
Solution fertilizer suppliers can provide salt-out temperatures for specific mixtures. If prolonged temperatures below the salt-out temperature are expected, crystallization should be prevented by diluting the solution with water. Fertilizer may be applied more frequently in small amounts so that it is available when the tree needs it. Increased fertilizer application frequency can increase liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping efficiency and reduce leaching.
Through fertigation, comparable or better yields and quality can be produced with less fertilizer. Microirrigation systems must be properly maintained to apply water and fertilizer uniformly. Properly managed applications of plant nutrients through irrigation systems significantly enhance fertilizer liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping while maintaining or increasing yield.
On the other hand, poorly managed fertigation may result in substantial yield losses. Be sure liquid ammonium thiosulfate pumping backflow prevention devices are in place and working properly.
Original publication date September Visit the EDIS website at http: The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences IFAS is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations.