Ethereum side chains in alphabetical order
Ideally, every possible organic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous structural formula can be created. To avoid long and tedious names in normal communication, the official IUPAC naming recommendations are not always followed in practice, except when it is necessary to give an unambiguous and absolute definition to a compound.
IUPAC names can sometimes be simpler than older names, as with ethanol, instead of ethyl alcohol. For relatively simple molecules they can be more easily understood than non-systematic names, which must be learnt or looked up. However, the common or trivial name is often substantially shorter and clearer, and so preferred. In addition, very long names may be less clear than structural formulae. In chemistry, a number of prefixessuffixes and infixes are used to describe the type and position of functional groups in the compound.
The numbers for that type of side chain will be grouped in ascending ethereum side chains in alphabetical order and written before the name of the side-chain.
If there are two side-chains with the same alpha carbonthe number will be written twice. If there are both double bonds and triple bonds, "en" double bond is written before ethereum side chains in alphabetical order triple bond.
When the main functional group is a terminal functional group a group which can exist only at the end of a chain, like formyl and carboxyl groupsthere is no need to number it. The finalized name should look like this: The group secondary functional groups and side chains may ethereum side chains in alphabetical order look the same ethereum side chains in alphabetical order shown here, as the side chains and secondary functional groups are arranged alphabetically.
The di- and tri- have been used just to show their usage. For simplicity, here is an image of the same molecule, where the hydrogens in the parent chain are removed and the carbons are shown by their numbers:.
The final name is 6 E ,13 E bromobutylchloro-4,8-diethylhydroxymethoxytricosa-6,dienyne-3,9-dione. Straight-chain alkanes take the suffix " -ane " and are prefixed depending on the number of carbon atoms in the chain, following standard rules.
The first few are:. The names of the ethereum side chains in alphabetical order four alkanes were ethereum side chains in alphabetical order from methanoletherpropionic acid and butyric acidrespectively. The rest are named with a Greek numeric prefix, with the exceptions of nonane which has a Latin prefix, and undecane and tridecane which have mixed-language prefixes.
Cyclic alkanes are simply prefixed with "cyclo-": Branched alkanes are named as a straight-chain alkane with attached alkyl groups. They are prefixed with a number indicating the carbon the group is attached to, counting from the end of the alkane chain. For example, CH 3 2 CHCH 3commonly known as isobutane, is treated as a propane chain with a methyl group bonded to the middle 2 carbon, and given the systematic name 2-methylpropane.
However, although the name 2-methylpropane could be used, it is easier and more logical to call it simply methylpropane — the methyl group could not possibly occur on any of the other carbon atoms that would lengthen the chain and result in butane, not propane and therefore the use of the number "2" is unnecessary.
If there is ambiguity in the position of the substituent, depending on which end of the alkane chain is counted as "1", then numbering is chosen so that the smaller number is used.
If there are multiple side-branches of the same size alkyl group, their positions are separated by commas and the group prefixed with di- tri- tetra- etc. For example, C CH 3 4 neopentane is named 2,2-dimethylpropane. If there are different groups, they are added in alphabetical order, separated by commas or hyphens: The longest possible main alkane chain is used; therefore 3-ethylmethylhexane instead of 2,3-diethylpentane, even though these describe equivalent structures.
The di- tri- etc. Alkenes are named for their parent alkane chain with the suffix " -ene " and an infixed number indicating the position of the carbon with the lower number for each double bond in the chain: Multiple double bonds take the form -diene, -triene, etc.
Simple cis and trans isomers may be indicated with a prefixed cis- or trans-: However, cis- and trans- are relative descriptors.
Alkynes are named using the same system, with the suffix " -yne " indicating a triple bond: Alcohols R-OH take the suffix " -ol " with an infix numerical bonding position: The suffixes -diol-triol-tetraoletc. If higher precedence functional groups are present see order of precedencebelowthe prefix "hydroxy" is used with the bonding position: Halogen functional groups are prefixed with the bonding position and take the form fluoro- chloro- bromo- iodo- etc.
Multiple groups are dichloro- trichloro- etc. For example, CHCl 3 chloroform is trichloromethane. In general ketones R-CO-R take the suffix " -one " pronounced own ethereum side chains in alphabetical order, not won with an infix position number: If a higher precedence suffix is in use, the prefix "oxo-" is used: Aldehydes R-CHO take the suffix " -al ". If other functional groups are present, the chain ethereum side chains in alphabetical order numbered such that the aldehyde carbon is in the "1" position, unless functional groups of higher precedence are present.
If a prefix form is required, "oxo-" is used as for ketoneswith the position number indicating the end of a chain: If the carbon in the carbonyl group cannot be included in the attached chain for instance in the case of cyclic aldehydesthe prefix "formyl-" or the suffix "- carbaldehyde " is used: C 6 H 11 CHO is cyclohexanecarbaldehyde.
If an aldehyde is attached to a benzene and is the main functional group, the suffix becomes benzaldehyde. In general carboxylic acids are named with the suffix -oic acid etymologically a back-formation from benzoic acid. Similar to aldehydes, they take the "1" position on the parent chain, but do not have their position number indicated. For common carboxylic acids some traditional names such as acetic acid are in such widespread use they are considered retained IUPAC namesalthough "systematic" names such as ethanoic acid are also acceptable.
For carboxylic acids attached to a benzene ring such as Ph -COOH, these are named as benzoic acid or its derivatives. If there are multiple carboxyl groups on the same parent chain, the suffix "-carboxylic acid" can be used as -dicarboxylic acid, -tricarboxylic acid, etc.
In these cases, the carbon in the carboxyl group does not count as being part of the main alkane chain. The same is true for the prefix form, "carboxyl-". Citric acid is one example; it is named 2-hydroxypropane- 1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, rather than 3-carboxyhydroxypentanedioic acid. Ethers R-O-R consist of an oxygen atom between the two attached carbon chains.
The shorter ethereum side chains in alphabetical order the two chains becomes the first part of the name with the -ane suffix changed to -oxy, and the longer alkane chain becomes the suffix of the name of the ether. If the oxygen is not attached to the end of the main alkane chain, then the whole shorter alkyl-plus-ether group is treated as a side-chain and prefixed with its bonding position on the main chain.
Alternatively, an ether chain can be named as an alkane in which one carbon is replaced by an oxygen, a replacement denoted by the prefix "oxa". This method is especially useful when both groups attached to the oxygen atom are ethereum side chains in alphabetical order. The alkyl R' group is named first. The R-CO-O part is then named as a separate word based on the carboxylic acid name, with the ending changed from -oic acid to -oate.
The -oate changes to -ate. Some simple examples, named both ways, are shown in the figure above. If the alkyl group is not attached at the end of the chain, the bond position to the ester group is infixed before "-yl": Amines R-NH 2 are named for the attached alkane chain with the suffix "-amine" e.
CH 3 NH 2 methanamine. If necessary, the bonding position is infixed: The prefix form is "amino-". For secondary amines of the form R-NH-Rthe longest carbon chain attached ethereum side chains in alphabetical order the nitrogen atom becomes the primary name of the amine; the other chain is prefixed as an alkyl group with location prefix given as an italic N: Tertiary amines R-NR-R are treated similarly: Again, the substituent groups are ordered alphabetically.
Amides R-CO-NH 2 take the suffix "-amide", or "-carboxamide" if the carbon in the amide group cannot be included in the main chain. The prefix form is both "carbamoyl-" and "amido-". Amides that have additional substituents on the nitrogen are treated similarly to the case of amines: Cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds can be treated as ethereum side chains in alphabetical order main parent chain of the compound, in which case the positions of substituents are numbered around the ring structure.
For ethereum side chains in alphabetical order, the three isomers of xylene CH 3 C 6 H 4 CH 3commonly the ortho-meta-and para- ethereum side chains in alphabetical order, are 1,2-dimethylbenzene, 1,3-dimethylbenzene, and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. The cyclic structures can ethereum side chains in alphabetical order be treated as functional groups themselves, in which case they take the prefix "cyclo alkyl -" e.
The IUPAC nomenclature scheme becomes rapidly more elaborate for more complex cyclic structures, with notation for compounds containing conjoined rings, and many common names such as phenol being accepted as base names for compounds derived from them.
When compounds contain more than one functional group, the order of precedence determines which groups are named with prefix or suffix forms. The highest-precedence group takes the suffix, with all others taking the prefix form. However, double and triple bonds only take suffix form -en and -yn and are used with other suffixes.
Prefixed substituents are ordered alphabetically excluding any modifiers such as di- tri- etc. If there are multiple functional groups of the same type, either prefixed or suffixed, the position numbers are ordered numerically thus ethane-1,2-diol, not ethane-2,1-diol.
The N position indicator for amines and amides comes before "1", e. These suffixes, in which the carbon atom is counted as part of the preceding chain, are the most commonly used. See individual functional group articles for more details. The order of remaining functional groups is only needed for substituted benzene and hence is not mentioned here.
Common nomenclature uses the older names for some organic compounds instead of using the prefixes for the carbon skeleton above. The pattern can be seen below. Common names for ketones can be derived by naming the two alkyl or aryl groups bonded to the carbonyl group as separate words followed by the word ketone.
The common name for an aldehyde is derived from the common name of ethereum side chains in alphabetical order corresponding carboxylic acid by dropping the word acid and changing the suffix from -ic or ethereum side chains in alphabetical order to -aldehyde. Hydron is a generic term for hydrogen cation; protons, deuterons and tritons are all hydrons. The Hydrons are not found in heavier isotopes, however. Simple cations formed by adding a hydron to a hydride of a halogen, chalcogen or pnictogen are named by adding the ethereum side chains in alphabetical order "-onium" to the element's root: If the cationic center of the hydride is not a halogen, chalcogen or pnictogen then the suffix "-ium" is added to the name of the neutral hydride after dropping any final 'e'.
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